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2019年 05月 05日 ( 5 )


2019年 05月 05日

4 Nichiren Starts Propagation in Kamakura (4)

                        Japanese edition


Nichiren continued criticizing the other religion at the same time. "Nembutsu is the hell of incessant suffering, the Zen is the work of evil spirit, Shingon destroy the country, the religious precepts sect is the act of treason to the country."
 It means that the person chanting Nembutsu falls into the hell of incessant suffering. Nembutsu had force as if almost becoming the state religion in those days.
Nichiren repeated criticizing Nembutsu mainly. Scholars of Nembutsu despised that Nichiren is by himself, but Nichiren counterattacks by using the shield of the doctrine of Buddha. There was not the person who matched Nichiren in a discussion of the doctrine of Buddhism.

By the way, the Nembutsu sect [the Jodo Shinshu sect], Zen Buddhism [Soto sect], and Shingon has been handed down up till the present. Four denominations which added the Nichiren sect survived until the present. In other words, a denomination which had been created in the Kamakura era just survived until the present. There is the times of civil wars after the Kamakura era, and there is the Meiji Restoration, and there was the defeat of the Showa, but, these four religious sects are the basic tone of the mind structure of Japanese without changing regardless of awareness lack of self-consciousness.

In addition, in AD 754, the Ritsu (religious precepts)sect was handed down by a Buddhist priest Ganzin of Tang. However, it became outdated early because the doctrine of the Ritsu sect established the sanctuary to let people make a priest and only granted religious precepts. Although Christianity to preach Ten Commandments came up in substitution for this, Christianity does not preach the three existences, past, the present and future, and either not preach the reward and punishment of cause and effect. This Christianity of non-Buddhism, so to speak, hardly is spreading in Buddhism country Japan.

By the way, the population ratio of the Christianity believer in Japan is only around 1.5% now.In addition, although India of the Buddhism birthplace became the British colony once, the Hinduism that preached the metempsychosis of three existences (past, present, future) and preached the reward and punishment of the cause and effect penetrated to the people this country, and Christianity almost did not spread. The population ratio of the believer according to the Indian denomination is Hinduism approximately 80%, Islam 13%, Christianity approximately 2% and Buddhism does not reach 1%.

Besides, Christianity never propagated in China which was a Buddhism country. The population ratio of the modern Chinese denomination is the native religion (Taoism) less than 80%, Buddhism less than 13%, irreligion 12%, Islam 2%, and Christianity 2%.


Nembustu that Honen advocated were all the rage in this time. Honen has passed away ten years before Nichiren was born, but the teachings of Honen have been breathing to people of the Kamakura era vividly. Nichiren criticizes Nembutsu from the root doctrine as the prime example of the most evil religion.To criticize Nembutsu sect was to criticize initiator Honen of the source.
The Nembutsu religious sect survives until the present times, but nobody evaluates Honen who is the founder. The reason is because Nichiren clarified it that the doctrine of Honen deviated too terrible from a text of a sutra.

The claim of Honen is as follows.
 Because the teachings except three Pure Land Sutra are difficult enlightenment for the common mortal, destroy all it. Therefore, he told people to abandon all sutras such as the Lotus Sutra, the Kegon Sutra and the Golden Best Sutra which Shakyamuni Buddha preached, close it, ignore it and throw it away. So-called; throw away, close, ignore, abandon.
 Honen interpreted the golden words of Buddha who had said that "the clear Law that Buddha preached would hide and sink when the times of the latter day of the Law began" in his own way.

It is preached on the Sutra of the Great Assembly (the 15th Bodhisattva Moon Storehouse) in this way.

“Shakyamuni Buddha decided the times of future to Bodhisattva Moon Storehouse, stating: The first five-hundred-year period after my death will be the times of self-emancipation, and the next five-hundred-year period will be the times of meditation. With the above it is one thousand years. The third five-hundred-year period will be the era of reading, reciting, and listening, and the next five-hundred-year period will be the times of building temples and statue. With the above it is two thousand years. The last five-hundred-year period will be the times of fight and disceptation within the teachings that I have preached, as a result the pure Law will become obscured and lost”.

This text of the sutra became the grounds of the thought of the latter day of the Law.
 Nichiren also criticized other religions and elucidated that the way of attaining Buddhahood for human beings of the latter day of the Law exists only in the Lotus Sutra. However, Nichiren quotes a lot of Buddhist scriptures excepting the Lotus Sutra in his writings, recognizes the value of all sutras of Buddha. Nichiren placed the Lotus Sutra to the ultimate best teachings and, with that in mind, revived all the Buddhist sutra.
 In addition, Honen said the other sutras except sutras (Immortality Sutra, Meditation Immortality Sutra, Amida Sutra)of the pure land are the gate of the sacred path.

He preached. Although the teachings except three sutras are suitable for a person of excellent ability, common people of the latter day of the Law cannot understand it and therefore not become Buddha. By this doctrine, he said that if we chant the name of Amida Buddha, we can attain Buddhahood in the afterlife. And he called this the gate of easy practice.
 Honen says.
 "There is not the Tathagata Amida in real world. We can come across Amida who is in the other country after death. Therefore, we cannot but wait for the future life for becoming Buddha". However, this logic is words to lead to present negation.

We seek a hope or a thing such as the possibility within even tough daily life unconsciously. It may be said that it is instinct. Honen closed the cap of emotions of such human being. This result is escapism, and only despair remains. That is why Nichiren called Nembutsu the hell of incessant suffering.
 Hell is not a story of the future life. If we deny hope or possibility, only sufferings are left.
 Nichiren uncovered wicked doctrine of Honen in this way, but they had known that the logic of Honen did not too have consistency when the scholar of Nembutsu to be hostile to Nichiren checked a doctrine of Honen. Nembutsu spread only naturally, they could not refute it at all when attacked from the document of all the sutras by Nichiren.
 Therefore, there is not the person evaluating Honen in the present day. Furthermore, there are not the people who praise the contents of "the Selection of Nembutsu" of his writing.


                 continued to (5)


Life of Nichiren. Vol. 1. Contents



by johsei1129 | 2019-05-05 23:07 | LIFE OF NICHIREN | Trackback | Comments(0)
2019年 05月 05日

4. Nichiren Starts Propagation in Kamakura. (3)

                      Japanese ver.


Nichiren preached Nam-myoho-renge-kyo that was the title of the Lotus Sutra directly. He preaches it regardless of the ability of a person hearing immediately. Shakubuku meant this.
To the contrary, Shakyamuni has induced all creatures for more than 40 years. He preached the various teachings to preach the Lotus Sutra that was the core of Buddha Law.
‘Adjusting, and nurturing inborn capacity’ means this. Shakyamuni needed 40 years to begin to preach the Lotus Sutra that was the long-cherished hope of the purpose in life.

Nichiren was different from Shakyamuni and preached the nub of the Lotus Sutra promptly.

This method is shown in "24th, the Bodhisattva Never Disparaging" of the Lotus Sutra. Shyakubuku is that the Bodhisattva Never Disparaging (note) appearing there and preached did not discriminate, said "there is the nature of Buddha (the world of Buddha) to all creatures".

The populace does not have the relationship with the Lotus Sutra. 'Originally not being yet of virtue' (note) means this. Therefore, the populace had malice toward the Bodhisattva Never Disparaging and persecuted the bodhisattva with a stick and a tree and a tile and a stone. Nichiren either inherits fate of the Bodhisattva Never Disparaging.

Nichikan (note) of the 26th chief priest of Nichiren Shosyu preaches it.
“And our Daishonin , the father of sect, said in a writing (
A Saint Knows the Past, Present and Future).‘Nichiren is the votary of the Lotus Sutra. I succeeded to the method of the Never Disparaging.' Daishonin said in this way and he did shakubuku and spread it as like the Bodhisattva Never Disparaging completely. Therefore, Daishonin spread the radical teachings of Life Span of the Lotus Sutra forcibly promptly in all of Japan without gradually growing the ability without using the means repeatedly like Shakyamuni did. In other words, the present all creature in the latter day of Law is because they are state of ‘Originally not being yet of virtue'”. 'Discussion of Life Span Chapter' in the Vol. 10 in the Collection of Main Points in the Fuji Sect Studies


              Continued to (4)


Life of Nichiren. Vol. 1. Contents


Note

Bodhisattva Never Disparaging

The bodhisattva who is preached in the chapter of the Bodhisattva Never Disparaging Always. Bodhisattva Never Disparaging Always is the different name.He appeared in the middle day of the Law which was the post mortem period of the Buddha of the Dignity Sound King. Because he preached the Lotus Sutra of 24 words teaching that all creatures have the nature of Buddha and worshiped all creatures and did not look down upon them, he was called Never Disparaging Bodhisattva. However, people looked down on him, and persecuted him by a stick tree, a tile and a stone, but he did not stop practices of the worship. Shakyamuni Buddha preaches a method of the post mortem propagation of Buddha and a merit of the relations to go against through practices of bodhisattva.

Nichiren Daishonin preached that he and his followers who chant Myoho-Renge-Kyo in the Latter Day of the Law is the Never Disparaging Bodhisattva.

“The tenth. About the interpretation; 'They heard his preaching, they all believed in him, showed allegiance, obeyed and followed'.
The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings says: The word 'heard' refers to the stage of hearing that name. After all, it is the daimoku for chanting it forcibly and angering a person. 'All' means the arrogant believers of four kinds. “Believed” refers to the faiths or belief that is without doubt. 'Allegiance' means the allegiance for the Lotus Sutra. 'Obeying' is that one's mind obeys to the Lotus Sutra. To 'follow' means that one's body follows of the Lotus Sutra. After all, now Nichiren and his followers, votaries of the Lotus Sutra who chant Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, are the Bodhisattva Never Disparaging in the latter day of the Law.” (Thirty important point of the chapter in the Bodhisattva Never Disparaging Always )
.

Nichikan
From 1665 to 1726. The another name is Kakushin. He is born a child of Jo'en Ito of the vassal of castle king of Joshu (Gunma) Maebashi, Lord Sakai. At 18 years old, he made up his mind to become a priest when he heard the sermon of Nissei in the Jozai Temple of Shitaya. He did hard ascetic practices after becoming the priest under Nichi'ei and changed the name to Nichikan in 1689. In 1711, he become the sixth chief teacher. During this time, he publicized justice of Nichiren and devoted himself to the prosperity of the religious sect. Main writings are the 'Exegesis of Five Major Writings of Nichiren Daishonin' and the 'Writings of Six Volume'. He received the transfer of lineage from Nichiyu of the 25th, he become the chief priest of Daisekiji Temple, in 1718. He is said to be the contributor of the halfway prosperity along with Nichi'u of the ninth.

Originally not being yet of virtue.
The inborn capacity of all creatures has two kinds of the "Already being of virtue originally” and “Originally not being yet of virtue". "The virtue" means a seed that will become Buddha, and it is necessary to plant the seed called Myoho-renge-Kyo because there is not this seed as for the all creatures in the latter day of Law. Shakubuku which is a professor method of the latter day of the Law has significance to plant the seed of Myoho-renge-Kyo to the all life of “Originally not being yet of virtue".



by johsei1129 | 2019-05-05 22:09 | LIFE OF NICHIREN | Trackback | Comments(0)
2019年 05月 05日

4 Nichiren Starts Propagation in Kamakura(2)

                     Japanese ver.


Poor houses formed a line in the downtown area of Kamakura. The common people of the Kamakura era lived in the buildings that were as if about to collapse at any moment. The wall was strengthened with soil, and the roof stacked a board and put a stone not to blow away by wind. Judging from the present era, it maybe said that it is the slums, but people are strong in all ages.

The everyday wear of the common people wore pants to a kimono of the cotton and closed an ankle with a string, and attached a short sword and the sack of flint to a waist. It is a style of loose trousers which is found in the countryside still now, and it is familiar to us of the present. One outstandingly more different than the present time is that men attached headwear of court nobles.Both an old man and young put the triangular black crowns on their heads, and they tied it up with a string under the chin and fixed it. It is said that they attached this even when sleeping. It is thought that the aristocratic culture of Heian era came down to the common people.

The eating habits were simple. Their staple food mixed wheat and a millet with unpolished rice and steamed it. They did not boil the cleaned rice by water like the present. A noble ate the polished rice, therefore generally they were short-lived.


The thatched hut of Nichiren either was a simple building.

He is the mere Buddhist priest who came from the country of Awa. The people on whom he relied were only a few believers of the hometown Awa country.

There was the place which was called Matsuba valley in the district called Nago'e. Nago'e is the district of southeast in Kamakura, Tokimasa Hojo of the first regent had made his house there. There is the house of the town's people, there is the house of the samurai here. The sea is near here. There is the Zaimokuza seashore which is bursting with energy if going down the loose slope. There was a mansion of Nago'e who was branch family of Hojo near. There is the parents' house of O'ama in Nagoe. In here is far from around Hachiman shrine where the aristocracy of the shogunate inhabits. Although the majority of Buddhist priests had a passion for getting close to the shogunate, Nichiren at first resided in a thatched hut of the Matsuba valley and started propagation to a samurai and a town's people.


The people of the town feel interest in a rare thing.
"Hey! Where do you go to?".
"It is said that there is a Buddhist priest who have moved to the Matsuba valley recently. It is said that the Buddhist priest does the sermon interesting”.
"Hum, it is amusing. I will hear it".
"I go, either. By the way, may it cost money?”.

Townsmen go into the thatched hut of Nichiren.

There was around ten audience around Nichiren in the house.
There is the person of the town, there are both a woman and the samurai either.
All of them sat down on wooden flooring and heard a preach of Nichiren.The Japanese paper which was written using large characters as Nam-Myoho-Renge-Kyo is hung on the wall of the house.

In front of that there are a frugal Buddhist altar, eight Lotus Sutras, the Infinite Meanings of the opening sutra, and the 'Fugen bodhisattva sutra' of the ending sutra.

Nichiren began sermon in front of Buddhist altar.
"The person believing Nembutsu advocates it with Nam-Amidabutsu. They do not pray to Buddha but pray to Amidha. In the first place Amidha is the Buddha whom Shakyamuni Buddha preached. Amidha is the same as the someone else if we assume Buddha a parent. That is why it is the same as looking down upon one's parent all creatures worship someone else and ignore the Buddha who is a parent".
Audience looked puzzled.
"The Buddhist priest of the Zen Buddhism say ‘There is the truth in other than teachings', and they expand the false theory that the truth of the Buddha Law was orally transmitted to Mahakashyapa. Such a thing is not possible. The Zen Buddhism is teachings of an evil spirit excluding the great thankful Buddha who began Buddhism".
One person left among audience, and two people left. There was the person who waved a neck, and returned.
And anyone disappeared.
Still Nichiren remained calm.


            continued to (3)


Life of Nichiren. Vol. 1. Contents



by johsei1129 | 2019-05-05 21:23 | LIFE OF NICHIREN | Trackback | Comments(0)
2019年 05月 05日

末法の本仏の立場で法華経二十八品を後継者、日興上人に口伝した書【御義口伝 下】要点解説(112)

【無量義経六箇の大事】

第四 処の一字の事(注)

御義口伝に云く、処の一字は法華経なり。三蔵教(注)通教(注)とは無の字に摂し、別教(注)は量の字に摂し、円教(注)は義の字に摂するなり。

此の爾前の四教(注)を所生と定めさて、序分の此の経を能生と定めたり、能生を且く処と云い、所生を無量義と定めたり。

仍つて権教に相対して無量義処を沙汰するなり云云。





処の一字の事
無量義経十功品第三の以下の文にあるについての御義口伝となります。
善男子、是の經は本より諸佛の室宅の中より來り、去て一切衆生の發菩提心に至り、諸の菩薩所行のに住す』

三蔵教・通教・別教・円教
釈尊の教えを勝劣によって4種に天台大師が体系化した教判。
三蔵教は小乗経で声聞を対象としている。通教は小乗・大乗に通じる意で、声聞・縁覚・菩薩に通ずる(主に菩薩を対象)初期大乗の教え。
別教は菩薩だけに説かれ、 空仮中の三諦が各別である教え。円教 は円融三諦を説き華厳経が該当する。
妙楽大師(天台宗第6祖)は『法華玄義釈籤』で、法華経を純円と定めている。

爾前の四教
法華経以前の蔵教・通教・別教・円教を示しております。







by johsei1129 | 2019-05-05 19:17 | 御義口伝 | Trackback | Comments(0)
2019年 05月 05日

Gosho 信解(しんげ)品六箇の大事 Six important points in the chapter of believing and understanding.

第二捨父(しゃぶ)逃逝(じょうぜい)の事

Point Two, regarding the passage “Suppose there was a man, still young in years, who abandoned his father, ran away, and lived for a long time in another land”.

The 2th. “Abandoning his father and running away”.

御義口伝に(いわ)く、父に(おい)て三()れ有り、

The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings says: The word “father” can be taken in three ways.

Three people exist in the word “father”.

法華経・釈尊・日蓮是なり。

It may stand for the Lotus Sutra, for Shakyamuni Buddha, or for Nichiren.

They are the Lotus Sutra, Shakyamuni Buddha, and Nichiren.

法華経は一切衆生の父なり、

The Lotus Sutra is the father of all living beings.

The Lotus Sutra is the father of all living beings.

()の父に(そむ)く故に流転(るてん)凡夫(ぼんぷ)となる

By turning one’s back on the Lotus Sutra, one becomes an ordinary mortal who is subject to the round of transmigration.

By turning one's back on this father, one becomes an ordinary mortal who wanders about aimlessly.

釈尊は一切衆生の父なり、

Shakyamuni Buddha is the father of all living beings.

Shakyamuni Buddha is the father of all living beings.

此の仏に背く故に(つぶ)さに諸道を()ぐるなり。

By turning one’s back on this Buddha,one keeps revolving on and on through the various paths of existence.

By turning one's back on this Syakyamuni Buddha, one must repeat reincarnation at the insignificant level.

今日蓮は日本国の一切衆生の父なり。

Now Nichiren is the father of all living beings in the country of Japan.

Now Nichiren is the father of all living beings in the country of Japan.

章安(しょうあん)大師の云く「彼が(ため)に悪を除く(すなわ)()れ彼が親なり」と、

The Great Teacher Chang-an [in his commentary on the Nirvana Sutra] says, “One who rids the offender of evil is acting as his parent”.

The Great Teacher Chang-an says, “One who eliminates his evil is acts as his parent”.


つづくContinued


本文 Original Text  御義口伝目次 Table of Contents



by johsei1129 | 2019-05-05 14:02 | WRITING OF NICHIREN | Trackback | Comments(0)