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日蓮大聖人『御書』解説

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2020年 09月 19日

39. Come true of prediction of revolt.(1)

     Japanese Edition

マップ自動的に生成された説明

      Mongol invasion. From Wikipedia

 The Kamakura political office is a magnificent building suitable for a ruler of Japan. Here was a tatami-matted reception hall.

 In May 1274, Yoritsuna Taira was meeting the Mongolian envoy for the third time.

Three years have passed since the Mongol Emperor Hvilai sent a personal letter, but the shogunate did not reply. He ignored their intimidation.

The Mongolians are not silent. The emperor sent envoys, one after another to urge them to open diplomatic relations.

On the Mongolian side sat a shawl-dressed Mongolian with a piercing gaze and a timid-looking Goryeo official. Goryeo had already been destroyed by Mongolia. Therefore, Koryojin are only servants of Mongolia. He instructed Goryeo, a vassal state, to negotiate with the Kamakura Shogunate. This is a difficult role for Goryeo.

On the other hand, Yoritsuna Taira and Nobutoki Hojo were on the side of the bakufu.

In the next room across the wall, Tokimune Hojo and Yasumori Adachi were hearing the conversation.

The Mongolian side protested.

"We are exhausted. I was kept waiting for 20 days in Kamakura, and moreover, I could not see the lord of Japan, the lord Kamakura. I am ashamed of myself as a Mongolian envoy."

Yoritsuna Taira laughed heartily.

"It is all of your faults. What is it to send that rude letter? What does it mean to resort to force depending on our response? Our Lord is very angry with you. You may apologize for your mistake and go back to your country immediately."

The government official of Goryeo whispered to the Mongolian people. To translate. The officials then translated the Mongolian response and refuted it.

"Our Mongolia conquered not only the Mongolian plateau, but also the Han Dynasty and Indochina, becoming the greatest country in history. My Emperor, Hvilai, has said that he would welcome it if Japan were friendly to us. This will also benefit your country. Everything depends on the decision of Lord Kamakura."

Tokimune is meditating across the wall.

Yoritsuna smiled faintly.

"That's an exaggeration. As far as we can hear, the Mongol army still does not control China. The Chinese emperor is said to be resisting in Gangnam. What do you think of it?"

A Goryeo official told the Mongolian people with a troubled face.

The Mongolian stares back at Yoritsuna.

Yoritsuna uttered his last words.

"I don't know where your country's ulterior motive is. Anyway, tell the sovereign of your country. The Hojo Shogunate, which controls samurai in Japan, does not give any reply to your country. If you are dissatisfied with this action, you have to fight."

The delegation immediately stood up in silence and left the reception hall.

The vassals of the Shogunate gathered in the political office.

The main members were Tokimune, Yoritsuna Taira, Yasumori Adachi, Nobutoki Hojo, and Nagatoki Hojo. They wielded the power of the shogunate led by Tokimune. It was the so-called mainstream faction.

However, there are always forces that oppose the mainstream. They are not in power and smoldering with discontent.

The head of the anti-mainstream faction was Tokimune's half-brother, Tokisuke Hojo, himself. Next to him was a family, including Mitsutoki Nagoe.

Nagoe is the name of a place in Kamakura. It refers to today's 3-chome to 7-chome, Omachi, Kamakura City. The Nagoe family led by Mitsutoki lived here. They are distinguished from the original Tokimune.

Both the mainstream and anti-mainstream have retainers.

Among them was Kingo Shijo, a strong believer of Nichiren. His lord was Mitsutoki Nagoe, the head of the anti-mainstream faction. He was standing right behind his lord, but he was preoccupied with the Priest Nichiren, who was exiled to Sado Island.

It can be said that it is the first great conference in a long time for the shogunate.

Yoritsuna declared at the end of his story.

"Therefore, we decided not to reply to the Mongolian letter. In the future, Japan will be on high alert against Mongolia, including information gathering. And all of you must prepare individually."

Yoritsuna tried to finish the meeting in a hurry, but Tokisuke Hojo put his hands on it.

"Objection."

Yoritsuna stared at Tokisuke, but he was the regent's older brother. He cannot ignore him.

Tokisuke Hojo said calmly.

"The other side comes to Japan with courtesy. Isn't it appropriate for us to reply politely here?"

Yasumori Adachi objected.

"However, do not we not have to give in to threats of force?"

Here, Noritoki Nagoe is moving forward. He was Mitsutoki's younger brother. Unlike Mitsutoki, who was mild-mannered, Noritoki was known as an anti-mainstream hard-liner. He rebelled against all the policies of the shogunate. Naturally, mainstream factions such as Tokimune are against him.

Noritoki says.

"This can only be described as the Mongolian side's strong stance. It would be better to reply in one document at least this time, using an adult's big-picture judgment. Lord Tokisuke's opinion is reasonable here. I think the Imperial Court will make the same decision."

Tokisuke smiled.

Yoritsuna and Yasumori of the mainstream faction leaned out and glared at Noritoki. At the same time, the retainers of both sides raise their one knee.

Here, elder brother Mitsutoki Nagoe interrupts Noritoki with one hand and says quietly.

"My younger brother was so worried about the future of the country that he said it so straight. On behalf of the Nagoe family, I would like to apologize. Let's talk about it peacefully."

The regent Tokimune was also in tune with Mitsutoki.

"Exactly. This is not a place for the Hojo family to argue. It is a forum to decide on measures to cope with the national crisis. If the shogunate were not united, it would be impossible to resist the attack by other countries."

Nobutoki Hojo, the governor of Sado, responded.

"That's true. Fortunately, however, our Hojo clan is secure and peaceful. They are united with the young regent. There is no enemy in the country. Nichiren had said that there would be a civil war in 100 or 150 days, but it was so funny."

Laughter rang in the hall. Tokisuke also laughed.

However, Kingo Shijo looks severe.

The meeting was over, but Mitsutoki and Noritoki brothers stared at each other in a separate room of the political office. Then, when their brother Tokiakira joined them, and the atmosphere became foul. The father of all three of them was Tomotoki Hojo, but their ages varied considerably. Noritoki was 38 years old, Tokiakira was 58, and Mitsutoki was even older.

Under the floor of their room, a spy placed his ears and eavesdropped on their conversation.

My brother Hikaritoki begins to talk.

"What the hell is going on? Must not talk like that in front of the regent!"

Noritoki is arrogant.

"Elder brother, the lord Kamakura is wrong. As lord Tokisuke says, we should try to maintain friendly relations by offering an answer, and avoid unnecessary friction with Mongolia."

Tokiakira, the second son, stopped him. Tokiakira was as calm as his eldest brother Mitsutoki. The position is also high. He was one of the central persons of the shogunate as a provincial constable of Tsukushi Province, Osumi Province, and Higo Province.

"Noritoki, we Nagoe, are a branch family of the Hojo clan. We are taken warning by the head family at every opportunity. At such a time, if you say such violent words, you will be suspected of treason."

Noritoki took a firm line.

"Nagoe is not a branch line of the Hojo clan. This family eventually will become the head of the shogunate. Then I..."

Mitsutoki put his finger on his mouth.

"You have a loud voice. Why did you support the lord Tokisuke at that table? He is the brother of the regent, but he has no power. Are you keeping in touch with the lord Tokisuke?"

The spy under the floor listens attentively.

Noritoki got angry.

"It's up to me whether I like it or not. It has nothing to do with you two. Anyway, I want to make Nagoe flourish. We have valued the Imperial Court for generations. What is wrong with the opinions of the Imperial Court and the lord Tokisuke? Please, that's enough. It's troublesome getting involved with the elder brother."

Noritoki left.

The rest of Mitsutoki and Tokiakira looked at each other darkly.

 The Nagoe brothers' father was Tomotoki Hojo. Tomotoki was the legitimate son of his father Yoshitoki who laid the foundation of the shogunate. Naturally, he had the qualification to become the head of the Hojo family. His father Yoshitoki was famous as a statesman who quelled the Jokyu Disturbance by destroying his old enemy, the Wada clan. Tomotoki, Tomotoki's son, was the heir to the Hojo clan, but he was behaving irresponsibly, so his father expelled Tomotoki and made Yasutoki, a son of a concubine, succeed the head of the family. Yasutoki later established the Goseibai-shikimoku (Code of the Trial), and he was called a wise ruler again.

His thoughtless behavior was that Tomotoki, when he was young, sent love letters to the court lady who was serving the Nun Shogun Masako, and secretly met her. When this scandal was revealed, it provoked the anger of Minamoto no Sanetomo, Masako's son, and was also disowned by his father, Yoshitoki. He must have been rash. It is difficult to have a person who is emotionally unstable succeed in the head family.

To make matters worse, Tomotoki was exiled to Izu for this incident.

At that time, Tomotoki had hundreds of retainers, but they all went out. They must have thought that their lord's career had been cut off. They all left. Samurai in this period changed masters soon. However, only one of his vassals, Yorikazu Nakatsukasa, accompanied him in Izu Province. He is the father of Kingo Shijo. Kingo's family served the Nagoe family for two generations.

In this way, the bloodline of the head family of Hojo, which continued from Yoshitoki to Yasutoki to Tokiyori to Tokimune, assumed dictatorial power. This lineage was called Tokuso after Yoshitoki's posthumous Buddhist name.

It seems that Yasutoki and Tomotoki were on good terms. It is well known that when Tomotoki was attacked by a robber, Yasutoki did not return to his duties and immediately went to rescue him. However, Tomotoki did not remain in power even though he was a legitimate son.

Their descendants are indignant.

The three children of Tomotoki, namely Mitsutoki, Tokiakira, and Noritoki, resisted the head family at every opportunity.

No wonder.

In principle, their father was the master of the shogunate and they should have the right to lead the shogunate.

In this way, the mainstream or anti-mainstream within the Hojo clan was formed.

The antagonism between the Nagoe brothers is nothing new.

Mitsutoki is quiet now, but once he staged a coup. This attempt ended in failure due to the sanctions imposed by Tokiyori Hojo, and Mitsutoki was placed under house arrest. It was only four months after Tokiyori became regent when he was 20 years old.

The details of the incident are described in "Mongol invasion" written by Chogoro Kaionji, a writer.

“Who said that on this day? As rumors of the start of the battle spread throughout Kamakura, the residents of the town gathered their household goods and evacuated, and the armored warriors began to wander and wandered with exaggerated sounds of horseshoes and armor. This incident occurred because of the ambition of Mitsutoki Hojo, who was a cousin of Tokiyori, the new regent. Mitsutoki was trusted by the former Shogun Yoritsune, but seeing that Yoritsune was filled with discontent because he was forced to resign as Shogun, he probably consulted with Yoritsune, he plotted to defeat Tokiyori, reinstate Yoritsune, and solicit comrades to become regent. However, this secret was revealed.

Tokiyori quickly gathered his troops and divided them into two to protect the shogunate and his residence. Because of his quick and careful handling, Mitsutoki could do nothing.

Yoritsune became anxious and sent an envoy to Tokiyori, but Tokiyori said,

"There is no need to meet."

He sent back the messenger.

Judging that the situation was disadvantageous, samurais who had been in close contact with Mitsutoki also betrayed and ran to Tokiyori. It was pathetic that only a few dozen people were around Mitsutoki. Now Mitsutoki is out of control, so he cut the bundle of his hair and said.

"I am a member of the Hojo family, and there is no way I would have any intention of rebellion against the Hojo family. Did a man with malice at me, raise the rumor that I had a plot? But now I have no means of explanation, and from now on I will give up samurai and enter the Buddhist road."

With these words, he gave a cut bundle of his hair to Tokiyori. Tokiyori decided to reduce Mitsutoki's punishments by one notch and banish him to Izu Province, and also decided to send Yoritsune back to Kyoto while Mitsumura Miura was appointed as an escort.”

The Nagoe family was exiled to Izu for two generations. This was when Nichiren, at the age of 25, was engaged in ascetic practices on Mt. Hiei.

On the other hand, his younger brother, Noritoki, failed in his attempt to make the Shogun from Kyoto the regent. This was only six years ago when Nichiren was 44 years old.

To explain how this happened, the shogunate deposed Imperial Prince Munetaka of the Imperial Court, who was the Shogun, and made his son Koreyasu Shogun. Koreyasu was only three years old.

At this time, Noritoki Nagoe opposed the policy of the shogunate, and demonstrated the town of Kamakura with dozens of heavily armed horsemen. It is said that he marched from his residence in Yakushi Valley to Tonotsuji, so the uproar in Kamakura was unusual.

Tokimune sent a messenger in order to go back, but Noritoki was arrogant and never apologized. However, again, he did not fight, but subsided.

Nagoe was the nest of rebellions in the Hojo clan.

Tokimune cannot indulge Nagoe just because he is descended from the Hojo clan. As long as the shogunate continues to exist, political power must be concentrated. Yoritsuna Taira, an alter ego of Tokimune, intended to destroy rebellious samurais.

The division of the family will lead to the weakening of the shogunate. He has to weaken the antagonistic Nagoe at any cost. What is most worrisome is the possibility that an outside family member might side with the Nagoe family and raise the banner of rebellion at any moment. It was a headache for Tokimune as well as Mongolia.

The only difference was that once a struggle broke out, there was no guarantee of life for the entire family.

Mitsutoki Hojo left the political building with an angry face.

His subordinates greet him.

Mitsutoki mounted his horse.

Kingo Shijo was called him.

"Kingo, do you still believe in Nichiren's teachings?"

Kingo Shijo was puzzled by Mitsutoki's sudden question.

Mitsutoki struck a blow again.

"Do you feel nothing for being laughed at by everyone? Oh, I see. I heard that when Nichiren was about to be beheaded, you tried to cut your own belly. Really, do you think who is more important, your lord or Nichiren"

Kingo uttered a single word as if squeezed from his stomach.

"My lord, there is no comparison. I cannot know which is more important."

"All right. You go to Izu now. Stay away from Kamakura and stay quiet at the residence of Izu."

Colleagues laughed. Their rival's blunders are pleasant. They were jealous not only of Kingo's faith in the Lotus Sutra, but also of their lord Mitsutoki's favoritism toward Kingo.

The regent, Tokimune Hojo, was watching the back of Mitsutoki Nagoe who was leaving through the window.

Yoritsuna Taira and Yasumori Adachi stood beside Tokimune.

Said Yoritsuna, an immediate vassal.

"Despite being a member of the Hojo clan, all the Nagoe clan rebel against the regent. We may have to fight them one day."

Tokimune reproved him.

"Don't say ominous things. The lord Mitsutoki is my uncle and a powerful branch family. If we're going to fight Mongolia, we have to get them to work."

Yasumori, whose younger sister is Tokimune's wife, also looked worried.

"My lord, I'm still worried. There is a rumor that the lord Tokisuke is approaching court nobles. Furthermore, it would be a big deal if the Nagoe family colluded with the lord Tokisuke. There is a danger that it will repeat the Jokyu War."

Tokimune immediately denied it.

"Tokisuke, my elder brother, is not such a person. I became a regent even though I was a younger brother, but I still admire my older brother."

Yoritsuna's eyes are sharp.

"But power is what misleads people. The people around the lord Tokisuke are not quiet. It is not certain that the court nobles of Nagoe and Kyoto will not tempt him."

Yasumori and Yoritsuna, who are usually opposed to each other, agree. The reason is that Tokisuke is their common enemy and they do not have peace and security as long as there was the Nagoe family.

Tokimune said here.

"Are they going to make me fight?"

Yasumori was panicking.

"My lord, it isn't. However, just in case, we have made the best arrangements. He has already set up a spy in the residence of Nagoe and the office of Tokisuke in Kyoto Rokuhara."

Tokimune folded his arms and thought about the hardships that would undoubtedly come his way.

A horse-riding troop of Mitsutoki Nagoe marched along the main street of the capital.

Kingo Shijo stopped his horse and left the line.

And he looked at the northern mountains and murmured.

"Shonin Nichiren, please be safe. I will definitely go to Sado."

雪が積もった森自動的に生成された説明

       By Wikipedia


It was still snowing in Sado.

Cloudy sky makes a sound from lightning strikes. Although it is midday, it is as dark as night.

In this snowy wilderness, there was the house for a funeral service in Tsukahara where Nichiren and his disciples lived. Both the roof and the walls were covered with heavy snow.

 The residence of Shigetsura Honma can be seen in the distance. Black smoke billowed from the roof of his house.

 The hardship of both Nichiren and disciples continues.

“In a northern country the wind was particularly strong and the snow was deep. The clothing was thin, the food was scarce. Well, so I understood how the mandarin orange, which is uprooted and transplanted to a different locale turns into a trifoliate orange naturally. My dwelling was a dilapidated house for a funeral service in a field thick with pampas grass where corpses were buried, the rain had leaked in, and the walls brewed the wind. Day and night the only sound reaching my ears was the wind being heard on my pillow; at dawn and sunset the sight that met my eyes was the snow that buried even the roads of various places. I felt as though I had passed through the hungry road and fallen into the cold hells. I experienced the same thing as Su Wu (note), who was detained for nineteen years in the land of the northern barbarians and ate snow to keep himself alive, or Yi Ling, who had dwelt six years in a cave and clothed a coat of straws.”

A trifoliate orange is a deciduous shrub of the orange family native to China. It is native to China and is two to three meters high. White flowers bloom in late spring and bear fruit in autumn. Also, there was a Chinese proverb that a mandarin orange in the south would become a trifoliate orange if it moved to north. Nature changes people, too.

There is a doctrine called "Human and an environment are not two" in Buddhism. The environment and human interactions with each other teach that there are not two in spite of two. Nature affects man, and man also influences nature.

In the house, his disciples put firewood in the Irori fireplace and put in a pot.

Nichiren sat at the sutra desk from early in the morning and frequently wrote.

Hoki-bo Nikko came back with snow in a tub.

A young disciple removes snow from a straw raincoat of Hoki-bo.

Hoki-bo took out a piece of snow from the tub and put it in a pan.

Snow starts to melt in the pot, and the water overflows. A disciple puts a vegetable in a pot and stir it with a spatula. Then, he put miso in a bowl and placed it beside Nichiren. The staple food was beans.

Nichiren devoted himself to writing.

Hoki-bo and the others begin to sip their soup, but Nichiren keeps his back turned.

"Master, here is your meal please. If you concentrate too much, it will hurt your body. Please rest for a while and eat."

Nichiren turned around smiling.

"I trouble all of you. I know this, but I can't stop writing. I don't know what will happen tomorrow. When I think about it, I want to write it right now."

Nichiren stared at his disciples.

"You guys, thank you for following me so far. But I think I can't stand it any longer. Food became scarce. There is a danger too. Now I am confident that I can manage on my own. All of you had better go back to Kamakura. Many thanks for your trouble”.

That was an unexpected word.

Hoki-bo Nikko turned to Nichiren.

"My teacher, I am prepared to share my life with you. I chanted the daimoku of teacher, encountered difficulties, and came to the end of the earth. It is too late to tell me to go home now. I will follow you everywhere. Please be prepared."

Other disciples followed.

"I will not be a drag on the Shonin. I can eat by myself. Please add me!"

"Sir, what are you talking about? I have entrusted my life to the Shonin. Please let me join you!"

"Me, too."

“Me, too.”

Nichiren answered solemnly.

"All right, please make faith and continue to become Nichiren's follower through being a practitioner of the Lotus Sutra. If you agree with Nichiren, there is no doubt that you are the Bodhisattvas emerging from the earth. I'll be glad."

Nichiren put the soup from the bowl into his mouth and made a joke. He must have been very happy.

"Oh, it's much better now! You may not learn, but you taste better."

The disciples could not help but smile at ease at the light talk of their teacher who is always strict.

 

立つ, 雨, グループ が含まれている画像自動的に生成された説明

‘Letter to Misawa’. The shadow writings. The writings that stacked thin paper and copied the original seen through. It is possessed by the Myokenji Temple in Kyoto.

Then Nichiren concentrated all nerves on writing.

He was banished and confined, but this is an opportunity for the perfect writing sentences in a reverse meaning. When he was in Kamakura, he spent his time advising the government by 'the Rissho Ankoku-Ron' and devoted an effort to teaching the disciples and believers. He left the writing that he wrote down the superiority and inferiority of the Lotus Sutra and Nembutsu, Shingon, the Zen and the other religions, but he had been keeping the secret teachings that he himself acquired. Therefore, he must make use of these adverse circumstances greatly.

The persecution of the Tatsunokuchi brought about an extremely serious turning point for the life of Nichiren. Nichiren understood a mission that he must write down the legitimacy of the Law of Buddha clearly. He must leave this for the disciples and believers who follow him in the future. The conception sprang out one after another, and his writing brush had no time to feel relaxed at all. From the moment of Tatsunokuchi, it was finally time to reveal the secret inner testimony.

Nichiren wrote about this in his letter to Kojiro Misawa. Kojiro was the landowner living in Misawa (Fuji District, Shizuoka Prefecture) in those days. In the book, Nichiren affirms that Nichiren's doctrine before Sado is temporary and is like the same as Shakyamuni's preaching before the Lotus Sutra.

“Besides, you should regard it that my doctrines before the banishment to the country of Sado are only equal to the teachings of Buddha having preached before the Lotus Sutra. I had been thinking that, if the ruler of this country desired to govern well, he would summon the priests of the Shingon or others for an open debate with me, and that on that occasion I would reveal a doctrine of truly supreme importance. If I tell it to my disciples beforehand, they might inadvertently disclose it to the priests of the Shingon or others. The Shingon or others blame me for this difference of doctrine and might avoid the debate. This is why I did not teach all of you it as well. However, on the night of the twelfth day of September in the eighth year of Bun'ei (1271), I was about to be beheaded at Tatsunokuchi. From this time, I felt pity for my followers because I had not yet revealed these true teachings to anybody. Though I did not tell the truth to the person who followed me, there is a secret doctrine to convey for my disciples from Sado. After the Buddha had passed away, great scholars and teachers such as Makakasho, Ananda, Nagarjuna, Vasubandhu, Tien-tai, Myoraku, Dengyou, and Gishin knew this doctrine, but kept it in their minds covertly and did not express it in words. The reason was that the Buddha had forbidden them to spread it, stating, ‘After my passing, this great Law should not be revealed until the Latter-Day of the Law arrives’. Though I have not been an envoy sent by the Buddha, my birth in this world coincides with the era. Moreover, quite unexpectedly, I realized this doctrine and I am roughly preaching the beginning until a saint will appear. If this doctrine will appear, all the teachings advocated by the scholars and teachers during the proper and the image times would become like stars in sunrise, or a coarse workmanship after a skilled craftsman. At this time, the efficacy of the Buddha statues, the priests and temples built in the proper or the image times will all extinguish and only this grand Law will spread throughout the entire world. Because you have an association with this doctrine, please think that you can expect it.” ‘Writings to Misawa’

Some of the disciples of Kamakura may think that Nichiren had already passed away. Even if he lived, he would not be able to return without the permission of Kamakura. Therefore, he put all his energy into writing all the more.

Nichiren arrived at Sado and started writing his own longest book "The Open the Blindness" of 35,638 characters immediately and finished writing it in only two months. That was a horrifying spirit as if he left the will for disciples.

“A person by the name of Nichiren was beheaded between the hours of the rat and ox (11:00 p.m. to 3:00 a.m.) on the twelfth day of September of last year. It is his soul that has come to this island of Sado and, in February of the following year, snowbound, is writing this to send to his closest disciples. They might be terrified, though this is nothing to fear. Those who have no faiths will be horrified after reading this writing. This is a mirror reflecting the future and the present of Japan, which is held by Shakyamuni Buddha, Taho Buddha, and the ten directions' Buddha. Then, this should be seen as the keepsake of the deceased.” The Book of Opening Eyes, Vol. 2’

note

Su Wu

140 B.C. ? ~ 60 BC. Warlord of the Chinese Han Dynasty. His nickname was Ziqiang. During the reign of Emperor Wu, he became a vice general, and in 100 B.C., he was sent to the Xiongnu. The king of the Xiongnu tried to make him surrender, but he would not comply, so he was imprisoned in a dungeon and not allowed to eat or drink. For a few days, Su Wu survived on snow and clothing. The Xiongnu were so surprised and afraid that they sent him away to a remote place on the North Sea to raise sheep, and offered to return him if the sheep gave birth to a son. A few years later, Li Ling surrendered to the Xiongnu, but Su Wu did not yield to his persuasion and pledged his loyalty to the Han. In the reign of Emperor Shou, a settlement was reached between the Han and the Xiongnu, and the Han demanded that Su Wu be returned to them, but the Xiongnu claimed that he had died. At that time, a retainer of Su Wu secretly told the Han envoy that the emperor had shot a wild goose near the capital, and there was a silk letter tied to his leg, stating that Su Wu was in a certain stream, and the Xiongnu king finally decided to return him. During this period of nineteen years, Su Wu remained loyal to the Han Dynasty, and he is known to posterity as a great vassal.

Yi Ling

 ? ~74 B.C. Warlord of the Pre-Han dynasty, China. Son of Li Guang. Character is Shaoqiang. A native of Longxi (Feng'an County, Gansu Province). According to the 109th volume of the Han Book, in the 2nd year of the Tianhan Dynasty (99 B.C.), he led a force of 5,000 men against the Xiongnu and defeated them well, but finally surrendered to the Xiongnu. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty angrily executed his family. The story of how Sima Qian, who defended Li Ling, incurred the emperor's wrath and was sentenced to be castrated is well known. Li Ling later married the daughter of the Xiongnu king and became the king's assistant, spending more than 20 years in the Xiongnu before dying of illness.

Sutras which are pre-Lotus Sutra.

The sermons of Shakyamuni Buddha's lifetime can be divided into the pre-Lotus Sutra, which he preached for 42 years after attaining enlightenment at the age of 30, and the Lotus Sutra, which he preached for eight years from the age of 72 until his death at the age of 80.

There are two points of difference between the Lotus Sutra and the pre-Lotus Sutra.

First, the pre-Lotus Sutra says that the Buddha "became a Buddha for the first time in this world," and that Gautama Mathisattarda, a prince of the Sakyamuni tribe, was ordained at the age of 19, underwent difficult ascetic practices as a Brahmin, sat for six years in meditation under a bodhi tree, and became a Buddha after attaining enlightenment at the age of 30. However, in the 16th "LifeSpan Chapter" of the Lotus Sutra, Shakyamuni Buddha disproved the theory that he "became a Buddha for the first time in this world" and taught that he had become a Buddha from infinite past and led sentient beings to the path of Buddhism.

The following is the relevant passage from the Tathagata's LifeSpan chapter of the 16th Lotus Sutra.

"Everyone thinks that the present Buddha Shakyamuni left the royal palace of the Shakyamuni tribe and sat in a Buddhist monastery near the city of Gaya to attain the enlightenment of the Buddha. But, ladies and gentlemen, I have already become a Buddha a long time ago (since the beginning of time). (omission) Ever since I became a Buddha, I have always been in this world to preach and teach to sentient beings. In other Buddhist lands, I have guided sentient beings in countless lands.”

(ii) In the pre-Lotus Sutra, it was declared by the Buddha that evil men, women, and the self-satisfaction of two kinds: cannot attain Buddhahood.

 Regarding the self-satisfaction of two kinds: Shariputra, who was said to be the first in wisdom, and Mokkenren, who was said to be the first in enlightenment, were blamed by the Buddha for being satisfied with a small understanding and a small perception compared to the Buddha's enlightenment, and not seeking for more than that, and therefore could not attain Buddhahood.

 In the Lotus Sutra, however, in the second chapter of Expedient Means, it is explained that all sentient beings have the Buddha nature, and in the third chapter of Metaphors, Shakyamuni Buddha taught that Shariputra would become the flower light Tathagata in the future. In the chapter on Devadatta in the twelfth chapter, Devadatta, who is said to have fallen into hell after the earth cracked open while trying to kill Buddha by poisoning himself, received the pronouncement as Heaven King Tathagata. In the thirteenth Encouragement Chapter, Mahaprajapati, the Buddha's foster mother and the first woman to be ordained, received the pronouncement of Tathagata, the joy of all sentient beings, and Yashodala, the wife of the Buddha when he was a prince of the Sakyamuni clan, received the pronouncement of Buddha with faces with ten million light. He also taught that all sentient beings can attain Buddhahood.

The corresponding verses from the second Expedient Means chapter of the Lotus Sutra. 

“The Buddhas and buddhas came into the world only because of the single most important fate: to make sentient beings open Buddha-knowledge, to make them attain purity, to show them Buddha-knowledge, to make them realize Buddha-knowledge, and to make them enter into Buddha-knowledge.”



To be continued to (2)



Life of Nichiren. Vol. 2. Contents



by johsei1129 | 2020-09-19 11:47 | LIFE OF NICHIREN | Trackback | Comments(0)
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