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2020年 06月 27日

Outline of the LIFE of NICHIREN 日蓮の生涯 概略

                 Japanese edition


Nichiren is born in Kominato of the Tojo District in the Awa Province on February 16 1222. The Kamakura Shogunate was founded in Japan by Yoritomo Minamoto, and 40 years had passed. Mongolia empire was going to conquer Asia by military power in the Orient, and invasion of the Crusade began in the West. It was like the times of a global fight.

 日蓮の父を太夫三国、母を梅菊という。詳細は不明だが、父の三国太夫は漁師として暮らしていた。魚を殺して働いたという。日蓮が後に述べている。「私日蓮は東の野蛮な国、安房国東条村の海辺のチャンダーラ家の子である。」。「佐渡への流罪」 。一方、母の梅菊は鎌倉時代の武将の一族であったことがわかっている。母は和歌に優れた教養のある女性であったという説があり、日蓮の並外れた文才は母の影響と考えられている。

 Father of Nichiren was called Tayuu Mikuni, and mother was called Umegiku. The details are unclear, but Tayuu Mikuni of father lived as a fisherman. It is said that he worked by killing fish. Nichiren was writing it down later. "I, Nichiren, is a child of chandāla (untouchable) family in the seaside of the Tojo Village of Awa Province in barbaric Japan of east". 'Receiving the Disfavor and Banishment to Sado'. On the other hand, it is known that Umegiku of the mother was the families of the military commander of the Kamakura era. There is talk that mother was a well-educated lady to make Japanese poems and Nichiren's exceptional writing ability is thought to have been influenced by his mother.


Nichiren called a childhood name Zennichimaro. In 1233, he climbed to the ancient temple Seichoji which was near Kominato of the hometown when he became 12 years old, and he became a pupil there. Nichiren writes down in the letter which addressed to the believer of the Seichoji temple later as follows. 

「私は生きている虚空蔵菩薩から大きな知恵を授かりました。私は彼に 「日本で一番賢い人にしてください」 と祈りました。菩薩は私に同情してくれたのかもしれません。彼は右腕の袖に、明けの明星のようにきらびやかな宝石を入れてくれた。その後、私はすべての経典を学ぶ一方で、八宗すべての経典の優劣も理解することができました。」 「清澄寺の衆徒へ」

I received great wisdom from a live the Bodhisattva Kokuzo. I prayed to him, 'Please make me the person who is the wisest in Japan'. The Bodhisattva felt pity for me, perhaps. He gave the great jewel as brilliant as the morning star into my right-hand sleeve. Thereafter, while I learn all the Buddhist sutras, I could understand the inferior and superior of the eight denominations and the all Buddhist sutras.” 'To the Public of the Seichoji Temple'.


Four years later, he became a monk formally at 16 years old, and took the tonsure and changed the name to Zeshobo-Rencho. Zesho is a meaning of the person being birthed under the solar light. Rencho vowed to give his life to the law of Buddha and not have a wife and child.


However, Awa country with the Seichoji temple was remote land culturally. Rencho visited various temples that were the center of the Buddhism, such as the Yakushi-ji Temple of the southern capital, the Enryakuji of Hi'ei mountain, the Tsuruoka Hachiman Shrine of Kamakura and he learned the essence of the Law of Buddha. Rencho made a study of Buddhism for 16 years, mastered the Law of Buddha at last. At the time, Rencho was prepared for the hardships ahead and he made a vow as "I will become a pillar of Japan, I become a large ship of Japan, and I become the eyes of Japan".


He returned to Awa of the hometown on April 28 in 1253 and declared the establishment of the Buddhism denomination. That place was the Buddha statue hall in the Seichoji temple which Rencho has prayed for making himself the wisest person in Japan. And he changed own name to Nichiren.

「南無妙法蓮華経。」 日蓮は、この題目を唱えることで全世界の人々が成仏の門を開けることができると宣言した。

"Nam-Myoho-Renge-Kyo." Nichiren declared that the people of the whole world could open the gate of attaining Buddhahood by chanting this subject. 


 At the same time, he criticized the four sects that prevent the road to attain Buddhahood of people. The Nembutsu sect creates the evil karma that causes the people to lead into the hell of incessant suffering. Zen gives rise to devil's functions. Shingon is an evil teachings that destroy the nation, and Ritsu sect is the bandit in the country. The four maxims mean this. These four maxims were the sharp swords for cutting off the fundamental darkness of all creatures. 


However, Kagenobu Tojo, land steward of Awa, heard this incident, was trying to arrest Nichiren immediately. Kagenobu was a strong believer of Nembutsu, he was trying to control the Seichji Temple. Nichiren immediately faced difficulties as like Shakyamuni predicted in the Lotus Sutra that "A difficulty befalls you if you spread the great clear law in the time of the Mappo".


Nichiren avoided this difficulty and began propagation in Kamakura of the capital of the politics. Nichiren, to spread the subject of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, began to criticize the other sect hard. Nichiren had continued this activity for 18 years. Although he criticized the other sect, he increased notoriety along with the fame either. Also Nichiren taught that his believers should spread the Law according to their ability. As a result, believers of Nichiren were gradually increasing to relatives of the disciples, samurai's colleagues, and monk of the other denomination.


In addition, famine and a contagious disease were raging in those days. The great disaster was frequent, too.


“From late years to recently there have been ominous occurrences in the heavens, and natural disasters on the ground. Famine and pestilence rage in all lands beneath the skies and in every place of the realm. Dead cattle and horses are everywhere, and human skeletons clutter the streets. More than half the population has already perished, and there is not a single person who does not mourn."


Nichiren recorded this tragic situation and asked the way of solution from all sutras of the Buddha.

12575月に起きた大地震で、鎌倉の建物が全壊しました。これを機に日蓮は、途切れることなく続く災害が偶然起きるものではなく、念仏の悪法から起こるものであることを悟り、「立正安国論 [真の仏教の確立による国の平和の確保について]を執筆する。

The large earthquake occurred in May 1257. This major earthquake destroyed all buildings of Kamakura. With this as an opportunity, Nichiren ascertained that a disaster to continue without a break does not get up accidentally, and they were happening from the wicked Law of Nembutsu, he finishes writing the 'Rissho Ankoku-Ron' [On Securing the Peace of the Country by Establishing the True Buddhism].


In July, 1260, Nichiren submitted this writing to Tokiyori Hojou who have the regal power through the lay priest Yadoya of the Shogunate official.


At the same time, Nichiren advised Yadoya to stop assistance to Nembutsu and Zen sect which had been recognized officially by the shogunate. Furthermore, if it was not adopted, he foretold that an internal war and the invasion of other countries happen. (The first remonstrance to the government)


By the way Hokibo Nikko became a disciple when Nichiren was writing the Rissho Ankokuron. Nikko will become the successor of Nichiren later. After this, the young 12-years-old Nikko continues to stand in front of the propagation like"obey the form of the shadow of Nichiren."

日蓮が立正安国論を提出してから1ヶ月後、日蓮の草庵を念仏信者が襲った。(松葉渓谷における仏教徒への迫害)。日蓮は辛うじてこの難を逃れた。さらに翌12615月、鎌倉幕府は日蓮を伊豆に追放した。その原因は、鎌倉幕府の閣僚が、念仏に対する信仰が強かったことにあります。彼らは日蓮を讒訴した。しかし、2年後、執権北条時頼はこの処分が誹謗中傷によるものであったことを認め、日蓮を赦免する。これにより日蓮門下の布教活動 (折伏) はさらに活発化する。

One month after Nichiren submitted Rissho Ankokuron, believers of Nembutsu sect attacked the thatched hut of Nichiren. (Persecution of Buddhists in the Matsuba Valley). Nichiren was barely able to escape this difficulty. In addition, the following year, May 1261, the Kamakura shogunate exiled Nichiren to Izu. The cause was the cabinet minister of the Kamakura shogunate having a strong faiths in Nembutsu sect. They brought a false charge against Nichiren.However, two years later, Tokiyori Hojo of the regent admits that this disposal depended on defamatory words and he pardons Nichiren. The activity of propagation (shakubuku) by Nichiren's disciples becomes even more active with this.

12647(文永元年) には巨大な彗星が空に現れ、現世の不安はさらに増大する。同年11月、日蓮は阿波国小松原の地で地頭の東条景信から襲撃される。(小松原の迫害)。日蓮は額を切られ、左腕を骨折した。しかし、法華経の修行者に大法難が訪れるという予言を証明したことから、再び末法の法華経の修行者であるという確信を深めた。

The vast comet appears in the sky in July of 1264 (the Bun'ei first year) , and the uneasiness of this world increases still more. November of that year, Nichiren was attacked from Kagenobu Tojo of the estate steward at the place of Komatsubara in Awa Province. (Persecution in Komatsubara). Nichiren was cut brow and broke left arm. However, because he proved the prediction that the great persecution would befall on the practitioner of the Lotus Sutra, he deepened the conviction again that he was the practitioner of the Lotus Sutra in the Mappo.


Then in January 1268 after four years, the incident to bring dark clouds in the future in Japan happens. The envoy of the Mongol empire arrived at Dazaifu and demanded subordination from Japan. Mongol destroyed Korea with the powerful armaments and was invading to mainland China. Kublai Khan, the emperor of the Yuan dynasty, demanded subordination from Japan in the letter. Further, if rejected this, he threatened to attack Japan. However, the Kamakura Shogunate began preparations for defense in defiance of this threat. As a result, the attack on Mongolia became decisive.


This incident meant the hit of the calamity of the invasion of the foreign country which Nichiren has foretold in Rissho Ankokuron nine years ago. Nichiren was convinced that this national crisis could not be settled if it was not him and he sent the 11 letters to each temple of Kamakura, including regent Tokimune Hojo in October of that year, and demanded the debate of public place. This purpose is to gather the Buddhist priests of each denomination in front of a ruler, to determine right or wrong of the Law of Buddha. Nichiren claimed that a national crisis would approach finally, if the shogunate did not stop faith for the wicked religious sect.


But Kamakura monks and the shogunate smothered Nichiren's remonstration. They had been terrified that the force of Nichiren becomes more powerful. The number of believers in the Lotus Sutra had been attaining a one-tenth of Japan.


The Kamakura Shogunate gave Ryokan of the Gokurakuji temple the order to pray for rain in June, 1271 when three years passed since the arrival of the letter of Mongolia. Japan's farm had been hit by a drought that year. The Gokurakuji Ryokan was the high priest of the shogunate recognition and has been criticized Nichiren opposing in a doctrine intensely.


Nichiren offered this Ryokan the decide the contest to pray for rain. As a result, Ryokan, who was to win easily, suffered a miserable defeat in this match and plotted to trap Nichiren. Ryokan gained the favor of wives of Shogunate officials and poured obstinate defamatory words. This voice spread out in the Shogunate, and the air which shall investigate Nichiren happened.


On September 10, Yoritsuna Taira, the chamberlain of Tokimune, summoned Nichiren. Yoritsuna was overseeing the military and police of the shogunate, and he was the existence to be able to be called the right-hand man of regent Tokimune. Yoritsuna asked about the truth of defamatory words, but because Nichiren had insisted the shogunate should prepare to Mongolia by the correct Law, Nichiren provoked an anger of Yoritsuna.

2日後の912日夜、頼綱は日蓮の草庵を攻撃した。頼綱は執権時宗の許可なく日蓮を暗殺しようとした。日蓮は額に傷を負いながら、 「武士たちは今、日本の柱を倒そうとしている! と叫ぶと、再び、反乱の災難と外国からの侵略の災難を予言した。(第二次諫言)

On the night of September 12 after two days, Yoritsuna Taira attacked the thatched hut of Nichiren. Yoritsuna intended to assassinate Nichiren without receiving permission of the regent Tokimune. Nichiren shouted while receiving a wound to the forehead, “You samurais are right now trying to overthrow the pillar of Japan!," he shouted and, again, foretold the calamity of revolt and the calamity of invasion from foreign countries. (The Second Remonstrating to the Government)

日蓮は「竜の口(ドラゴンの口) 」と呼ばれた鎌倉海岸で斬首されることになった。(竜口の法難)。しかし、オックスとタイガーの間(午前1時から午前5時まで)に突然現れた光の物体によって、死刑の執行は中止された。この時、日蓮は法華経で説かれた上行菩薩の化身の仮の姿を、絶望的な状況のもとで消し去った。同時に、自分こそは本来完全なる智慧を具えた仏であり、無限の過去における根本仏であると述べた。(暫定的なものを振り払い、起源を明らかにすること)。そして、「私、日蓮は支配者であり、教師であり、父であり、母である。」と宣言した。根本仏とは、末法の世において、君主、教師、父母の三徳を具えた仏をいう。

Nichiren was to be beheaded in Kamakura coast where was called "Tatsunokuchi (dragon's mouth)". (Persecution of Buddhists in Tatsunokuchi). But enforcement of the death penalty was aborted by the luminous object that suddenly appeared between the hours of the Ox and the Tiger (from a.m. 1:00 to a.m.5:00). At that moment, Nichiren wiped away the temporary style of the reincarnation of the Bodhisattva Jogyo who was preached in the Lotus Sutra when this particular phenomena happened at the place of desperate situation. At the same time, he expressed that he himself was the Buddha having the intrinsically perfect wisdom and is the fundamental Buddha in the infinite past. (Shaking off the provisional and revealing the origin). And he declared, “I, Nichiren, am the ruler, am the teacher, and am father and mother, to all the people of Japan”. The fundamental Buddha means that the Buddha who holds the three virtues of a ruler, a teacher and parents in the Latter-Day of the Law.


Oppression such as deportation or the territory confiscation began to the believers by the arrest of Nichiren. Nichiren records that 99 of 100 people of the same belief abandoned their faith. Although regent Tokimune spared the life of Nichiren, he received defamatory words and decided the banishment to the Sado island.

つづく Continued

continued Life of Nichiren Part 1

by johsei1129 | 2020-06-27 22:58 | LIFE OF NICHIREN | Trackback | Comments(0)

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